1. Sun and Moon: Describe the orbital features of the sun-earth-moon system, including seasons, eclipses, and phases.
2. Scaling: Describe and apply the scale of distances and sizes of the Solar System.
3. Tectonics: Describe plate dynamics, identify the types of plate boundaries, and explain the features and processes that occur at each type of boundary.
4. Science: Define and explain the relationships between scientific observations, laws, and theories.
5. Wegener: Explain how and why the theory of plate tectonics became generally accepted.
6. Hot Spots: Describe the features of hot spots and explain the land forms and activities attributed to hot spots.
7. Volcanoes: Identify and describe the different types of volcanoes, how they behave, and how their properties determine their form.
8. Faults: Define the major types of fault movement and the crustal environments that cause them.
9. Shaking: Apply and interpret the Modified Mercalli intensity scale and the Moment Magnitude scale to understand the severity of earthquakes.
10. Countours: Describe a landscape and identify its features qualitatively and quantitatively using the information from a topographic map.
11. Rock Cycle: Explain how igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks form.
12. Minerals: Recognize common rock-forming minerals and identify theri common sources.
13. Rocks: Identify igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks by sight. Classify sedimentary rocks by composition, igneous rocks by composition and grain size, and metamorphic rocks by appearance. Sedimentary rocks: identify and define limestones, sandstones, shales, and conglomerates. Igneous rocks: Identify plutonic and eruptive rocks. Metamorphic rocks: Identify quartzite, marble, slate, phyllite, schist, and gneiss.
14. Time: Understand the scale and scope of geologic time. Includes knowing the major divisions of geologic time: Eons, Eras, Periods, Epochs. Know the names and order of the eons, the eras and periods within the Phanerozoic Eon, and the epochs within the Cenozoic Era.
15. Steno: Use stratigraphic rules to determine the relative ages of geologic features. Features include rock layers, erosion surfaces, faults, and igneous intrusions.
16. Surface Processes: Identify, describe, and explain the roles of water, ice, wind, and gravity on landscape evolution. Identify and explain features produced by streams, valley glaciers, ice sheets, wind, and waves.
17. Geomaps: Read and interpret geologic maps. Identify and explain geologic structures shown on the maps, such as faults and folds.
18. Fossil fuels: Explain the formation and occurrence of fossil fuel resources. Describe how coal, oil, and natural gas form and where they can be found.
19. Circulation: Identify and explain atmospheric circulation. Describe and explain the physics of circulation, energy transfers and forces acting on and within the atmosphere. Includes identifying and explaining composition and properties of the layers of the atmosphere.
20. Weather terms: Define and describe the quantities used to desscribe weather. Directly sensed quantities include temperature, wind speed and direction, precipitation type and amount, humidity, cloud cover and type, and visibility. Measured quantities include pressure and composition. This standard includes describing how the quantities are reported, including units and the station model.
21. Thunderstorms: Identify the different types of thunderstorms, how they develop, and how and why they form. Types include single-cell storms, squall lines, mesoscale convective storms, and supercells. Tornadoes are included in this standard.
22. Hurricanes: Define and describe tropical cyclones and the conditions under which they form and develop.
23. Fronts: Describe the formation and development of midlatitude cyclones. Includes identifying fronts and the weather associated with different parts of a midlatitude cyclone.
24. Weather data: Obtain and discuss data from weather stations, weather balloons, satellites, and summary maps.
25. Köppen: Describe, identify, and explain the Köppen climate designation of a location. Also be able to identify, discuss, and explain deviations from the general type in specific cases.
Copyright © 2017, Richard Barrans
Revised: 26 November 2018. Maintained by Richard Barrans.